FORCED LABOR AND SEXUAL SERVITUDE: THE VARYING FORMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Feb 18 2021

However, there is evidence available to prove that when dealing with individuals inside a country's borders is included in the count, more individuals are trafficked by staff than by sex. The secret character of the trade-in humans prohibits a specific number of victims around the world. While labor trafficking and sex trafficking are generally analyzed as separate human trafficking problems, trafficked people also share one common denominator: migration began with trafficking to find economic solutions.

The topic of displacement is frequently heard in the literature on trafficking in human beings, and in fact, many trafficking activities are often characterized by the transportation of victims. But slavery may also take place without a person's movement. The emphasis should be on the abuse and control by coercion, deception, or coercion of the individuals and not on the individual's movement in analyzing trafficking problems and planning successful solutions.

The travel of the victim is not mandated by the international definition of human trafficking as specified in the UN Convention on Prevention, Suppression, and Punishment of Individuals, Women, and Children in particular, in 2000 or by the U.S. definition of serious forms of human trafficking, as defined by federal legislation. No movement is required because any person who is recruited, harbored, subjected, or compelled to consent to compulsory slavery, forced labor, or commercial sex by intimidation, fraud, or coercion counts as a victim of the trafficking.

Major Forms of Trafficking in Persons

Forced Labor

Some forcible employees take advantage of law enforcement loopholes while unscrupulous bosses manipulate marginalized citizens. They become more vulnerable to the practice of forced labor due to unemployment, hunger, violence, bigotry, corruption, political tensions, and cultural acceptability. Immigrants are especially vulnerable, but citizens in their own countries are often pushed into jobs. Women, particularly women and girls who are employed for forced or bonded jobs, are often abused sexually as well. Forced labor is more difficult to classify and quantify than the sex trade. Forced labor is a form of slavery. It can include people, who contribute from one to a hundred employees in every position to voluntary servitude, maybe by forced or forced domestic labor, or work at the mine, rather than the same criminal networks that benefit from the transnational sex trafficking.

Bonded Labor

The use of a trust or a mortgage to hold an individual under subjection is a means of force or coercion. It is criminalized under US law and used as a method of coercion related to prostitution in the U. S. TIP Protocol (UN TIP Protocol). This is known in law and regulation as "debt bonding." Many jobs worldwide suffer from debt slavery through the illegal misuse of original employable debt by smugglers or recruiters or by employees inheriting their debt from conventional bonding schemes. In South Asia, conventional bonded labor enslaves a vast number of people between generations.

Debt Bondage and Involuntary Servitude Among Migrant Laborers

Migrant workers are highly vulnerable to trafficking, as in some regions, the workforce is significant. Three potential contributors can be discerned: 1) contract abuse; 2) inadequate local regulations regulating the procurement and recruitment of migrant employees, and 3) voluntary imposition in the country and State of source, often with complicity and/or encouragement by workers' agencies and employers of destination countries, of exploitative and often unlawful spending and debt. Any contractual violations and dangerous terms of employment themselves do not constitute accidental slavery and a condition can turn into forced labor by way of use or a threat of physical strength, or constraint to compel a worker to join or continue working or service. Staff can be put at high risk of debt slavery by charges for the "privilege" of operating overseas. These costs do not, however, alone reflect debt slavery or unintentional servitude. Combined with the corruption by unscrupulous employees or employers in the country of destination, such costs or debts will become a form of debt bonds if excessive.

Involuntary Domestic Servitude

Domestic workers can, by intimidation or coercion, including physical (including sexual) or emotional violence, be stuck in servitude. Especially fragile are infants. It is especially difficult to identify domestic servitude because private households, often unchecked by state authorities, are involved. For starters, domestic servants who sometimes become victims of unwillingness in some of the richest countries in Asia and the Middle East are in great demand.

Forced Child Labor

Many international bodies, as well as national regulations, accept that children should participate in light labor lawfully. In comparison, nations globally are targeting the worst types of child labor. One of the worse aspects of child labor is the sale and exploitation of children and their entanglement in bonded and forced labor. Any child who, by using coercion, bribery, or compulsory forced labor, suffers from unintended servitude, debt, peonage, or slavery, is victim of human rights trafficking irrespective of where it exists.

Child Soldiers

Child soldiers represent a rare and dangerous manifestation of human trafficking, including the illegal recruiting of children by intimidation, deception or bribery to be used or violated as sexual slaves in war zones. Such criminal activities may be committed by army, militia or rebel organizations. UNICEF reports that in more than 30 armed conflicts worldwide, more than 300,000 children under 18 are actually being abused. While the bulk of children's troops are aged 15 to 18, others are 7 to 8 years old.

Several children are captured and used as troops. Others are forced to work as porters, cooks, soldiers, servants, messengers, and spies unfairly. Many young girls have to marry or have sex with men and the possibility of unintended pregnancies is high. Soldier men and women are often sexually assaulted and are particularly vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections.

Any kids are pushed against their family and their cultures to commit crimes. Child soldiers are often murdered or injured, with sometimes multiple traumatic wounds to the survivors. Their personal growth is also affected irreparably. Children soldiers returning to their homelands are frequently refused.

Child soldiers are an international phenomenon. The concern is more important in Africa and Asia, but rebel forces still secretly use children in the war zones in the Americas and the Middle East. Both nations must work together to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate childhood troops, with foreign institutions, and with NGOs.

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